Sunday, February 22, 2015

The Barbaroi of Northeast Africa

Normally I don't touch upon historical topics of this nature but this one was particularly alluring to me as it touches upon my homeland of the Horn of Africa and its neighbouring regions across Northeast Africa.



Northeast Africa


The term Barbaroi is a Greek term utilized by the Greeks of the classical era to describe various peoples across Northeast Africa back in antiquity. It, well, I'll let google explain it:

"From the Greek 'barbaroi,' meaning 'babblers,' used to mean non-Greeks, i.e., people who didn't speak Greek; from the sound that the Greeks thought they were making: 'bar bar bar bar...' " (check the notes at the end of this post)

The Greeks weren't the only peoples to mention them however nor did their mentioning cease after times coinciding with the Mediterranean classical era, in fact the term Barbara or variants of it were used to describe Somalis well into the 14th Century CE by such travelers as the famous Ibn Battuta. But more on that as we progress...


One of its first and most prominent usages was in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st Century CE document describing the trade across what was then known as the Red Sea to the classical world (The Indian Ocean) with the Red Sea being designated as "The Arabian Gulf". 





In the document as the labeling across Northeast Africa above shows; areas such as Northern Somalia & Northeastern Sudan were said to have been inhabited by Barbaroi (or in some translations "Berber") tribes of a seemingly mostly pastoral nomadic nature. 

The tribes in Northeastern Sudan mostly correspond with the Blemmyes who were by the 3rd-4th Centuries CE confirmed by the Aksumites to have been ancestral to the modern Beja (referring to them as Beja outright) & outlining their pastoral life-style just as the Greeks & Romans before them had when speaking of them as Blemmyes & Troglodytes as well as perhaps even Macrobians.





In Northern Somalia these Barbaroi tribes (generally thought with some good indicators to be mostly ancestral to Somalis) are described to be the progenitors of what were then in antiquity known as "The Far-side Ports", independently ruled Market-towns (with some semblance of a suzerainty with Aksum) inhabited by these tribal Barbaroi peoples (in an area the Greeks designated as one of the Berber countries) who traded with Arabians, South Asians & peoples from the Mediterranean world alike. 

Each port-town is visibly mapped on that modern mapping of the Periplus' directions for example or even this other mapping made by a hobbyist historian I tend to correspond with:




I won't go into details about every single port lest this post end up too cluttered but for example Mosyllum or Mosylon which was not only mentioned by the Greeks but also Roman writers trading with it for Cinammon [8, page 229] is described with the following in the Periplus:


"Beyond Mundus, sailing toward the east, after another two days' sail, or three, you reach Mosyllum, on a beach, with a bad anchorage. There are imported here the same things already mentioned, also silver plate, a very little iron, and glass. There are shipped from the place a great quantity of cinnamon, (so that this market-town requires ships of larger size), and fragrant gums, spices, a little tortoise shell, and mocrotu, (poorer than that of Mundus), frankincense [from] the “far-side”, ivory and myrrh in small quantities."


Many of the names of these places are Greek distortions of what they were probably originally called. And of course there is archaeological evidence of old settlements of this sort across Northern Somalia, one town Opone is believed with some evidence to correspond with the town Hafun (Somali: Xaafuun, Arabic: حافون) with evidence of a sedentary settlement, tombs, ruined homes with court yards, cut building blocks & old pottery found in the area.




Found by Neville Chittick & company



Various archaeological teams of German, British, American & even Somali origins managed to encounter several sites all across Northern Somalia, to name but a few individuals:






Along with other teams and individuals finding evidence of trade, ruins and even the continuity (continued usage) of sites that in age look quite old. A plethora of sites likely dating back to antiquity (before the Middle ages) would be Heis, Amud (this site seems Aksumite-like), Wargaade (this particular site is mentioned by and was aided in being preserved by Sada Mire), Zeila, Hafun, Berbera, Botiala and so on.


"Ancient Egyptian, Roman and Persian Gulf pottery has been recovered from the site by an archaeological team from the University of Michigan. In the 1970s, Neville Chittick, a British archaeologist, initiated the British-Somali expedition where he and his Somali colleagues encountered remains of ancient drystone walls, houses with courtyards, and the location of the old harbour." [3, page 8]


Intriguingly the same type of boat used by both these Barbaroi of Northern Somalia & the Aksumites of Late Antiquity was used in the region well into the early modern period by Somalis. I.e. one type of traditional Somali boat called the "Beden" is a variant of the Red-Sea Indian Ocean trade ship long used by South Asian, Southeast African, Arabian & Horn African sea traders as is outlined for example in this text from a comprehensive book on the Aksumite civilization:

"The Aksumite technique whereby ships were made by binding with ropes, not by using nails, which is also mentioned by the Periplus as existing on the East African coast (Huntingford 1980: 29), lasted until recently in the Somali, Hadrami, and East African coastal regions, where such `sewn boats' were common. Procopius' information is a very good indication that when he speaks of Kaleb's fleet he was actually referring to Aksumite ships rather than others simply using Aksumite ports. It cannot be said what proportion of goods might have been shipped in Aksumite vessels, but as a trading nation with a maritime outlet of great importance, and later on an empire to administer overseas, it is certain that Aksum's merchant fleet or navy was a useful, even vital, part of the apparatus of commerce and government." [2, page 186)

On another note; the Barbaroi (or Berber or as it is sometimes translated; "Barbarian") epithet however did not cease to be once one was out of Northern Somalia & Northeastern Sudan back in antiquity. Barbaroi peoples are described to inhabit the Danakil/ Afar triangle as well as parts of what is now Eritrea by various sources of Roman (Latin), Greek & even Aksumite origin.

One of the most famous is in an Aksumite document that describes an Aksumite King of King's conquests of various tribes and peoples across his realm. Within the Danakil he mentions groups of these tribes of Barbaria (regions of the Horn inhabited by these tribal pastoral nomadic peoples):


"I defeated also the barbarian people of Rauso who live by the aromatics trade, in immense plains without water, and the Solate, whom I also defeated, imposing on them the task of guarding the sea-lanes."


The directions he gives with his general conquests and description he offers with vast plains without water (desert landscape) inhabited by these tribes looks to be as this modern mapping (by that acquaintance) shares; the Danakil desert:






It is today inhabited by the Afar mostly who intriguingly keep on the same tradition of gathering blocks of salt from the unforgiving desert (if not the most unforgiving) to be traded in Ethiopia as they were back in the late antiquity based period of Kaleb's reign [2, 152]. In fact salt-blocks gathered from these nomadic groups in the Danakil remained a form of currency for the medieval Abyssinian Empire [12, page 103] as they were for certain segments of Aksumite society for centuries.






Many other instances of Barbaroi-Barbarian-Berber tribes are mentioned across the area of the Aksumite Empire/ Kingdom's reign, many by Roman & Greek writers. One has a part in describing how Christianity came to the region, a dominant religion in Ethiopia & Eritrea nowadays that has a history stretching back as early as the 4th Century CE in the region. 


It plays into the story of Frumentius, a Tyrian man who would find himself enslaved within the court of an Aksumite King, having a part in the upbringing of this King of King's son, Aezana of Aksum; a man who would not only convert much of his realm to Christianity and abolish its pagan traditions (Frumentius would become Aksum's first Bishop) but also win many great conquests for the pre-medieval state.


The following events are written about by Tyrannius Rufinus:


"One Metrodorus, a philosopher, is said to have penetrated to further India in order to view places and see the world. Inspired by his example, one Meropius, a philosopher of Tyre, wished to visit India with a similar object, taking with him two small boys who were related to him and whom he was educating in humane studies. The younger of these was called Aedesius, the other Frumentius. When, having seen and taken note of what his soul fed upon, the philosopher had begun to return, the ship, on which he traveled put in for water or some other necessary at a certain port. It is the custom of the barbarians of these parts that, if ever the neighbouring tribes should report that their treaty with the Romans is broken, all Romans found among them should be massacred. The philosopher's ship was boarded; all with himself were put to the sword. The boys were found studying under a tree and preparing their lessons, and, preserved by the mercy of the barbarians, were taken to the king. He made one of them, Aedesius, his cupbearer. Frumentius, whom he had perceived to be sagacious and prudent, he made his treasurer and secretary. Therefore they were held in great honour and affection by the king."[2, page 171]

 
 These particular Barbaroi tribes were subservient to the Aksumite King of Kings of the time, guarding the trade routes across the Red Sea region (areas today inhabited by Sahos, Bejas, Tigrinya, Afar, Tigre, Rashaida (the last group being recent migrants) etc.) on his behalf. One must wonder if peoples ancestral to the modern Tigre were among these pastoral nomadic tribes described across the Northeast African coast, they do not speak a Cushitic language like the other groups (Somalis, Bejas, Sahos, Afars) but it's not like the Aksumites, Romans & Greeks were aware of the Afro-Asiatic language family or the difference between Ethiopian Semitic & Cushitic to begin with.



Danakil Desert


One of the most interesting things about these Barbaroi peoples is not simply that foreign groups such as the Greco-Romans & sometimes even the Aksumites felt the need to conflate them together under one epithet but that there is actually a certain level of cultural similarity between all of them described even in historical texts from antiquity to the medieval period.

"The geographer Artemidorus, writing around 100 BCE in passages passed down to us by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, described them as living "a nomadic life on their flocks, each group with its tyrant. At the time of the Etesian winds, when there are heavy rains, they live on blood and milk, which they mix together."

 That was a 100 BCE and earlier description of the lifestyle of certain Blemmye tribes in Northeastern Sudan (ancestral Beja tribes). This practice of drinking cattle blood mixed with milk is not exclusive to them, in fact one book would go so far as to dub it a "Cushitic Custom" (unfortunately I can't find a sample of it to share online).
 

However a Chinese source on Northern Somalia during the early medieval period (800-900 CE) describes the local nomadic pastoralist Somali inhabitants as not only being able to hold back the forces of the "Tazi" (The Caliphates) with a force of 200,000 soldiers (likely an exaggeration to merely put the point across that they had a powerful fighting force) but also having practiced this same custom of drinking cattle blood with milk:


"The people do not eat any of the five grains but they eat meat: more frequently even they pick a vein of one of their oxen, mix the blood with milk and eat it raw."  [17]



The Chinese author, Duan Chengshi referred to the area as "Bobali" (or some variant of such), however this is likely not an example of the word "Somali" but likely a distortion of the Beber-Barbara-Barbaroi term in some way [4, page 48].  Medieval Somalis were either designated by their clan names such as in the Futuh Al-Ḥabasha ("The Conquest of Abyssinia". Granted, the word "Somali" is employed in this document), or they were referred to with the word Barbara or some variant of it. 

The word "Somali" was actually only first employed in a victory hymn arranged by the Abyssinian Emperor Yeshaq I upon winning a victory against a Muslim Sultan & his troops, it was apparently used to describe the Sultan's forces. [13, page 2] Even then it was not used widely until much later.

These aren't the only similarities and connections between the pastoral nomadic peoples of the coastal regions of the Horn & Northeastern Sudan. Virtually all of them are speakers of Afro-Asiatic languages with the majority excluding Tigre being speakers of only one branch within the family-> Cushitic, albeit with sub-branches within this branch separating them.

Inquiries into some of their languages such as Saho-Afar & Beja even show evidence of them being historically geographically contiguous [6, page 1], in fact Beja; the sole member of the North Cushitic subbranch's connection to other Cushitic languages was, to some extent by one linguist, bridged by its connection to two Lowland East Cushitic languages; Saho & Afar, all three languages being similar in morphology and the only Cushitic languages to follow what he dubs the root and pattern system [7, page 1]. 



A depiction of Saint Frumentius of Ethiopia


The contact between the Beja & Tigre is also well-known, to a point where a segment of the Beja (the Beni-Amer) are known to often speak Tigre alongside Beja or even instead of it, supposedly intermixing with the Tigre. 

The Tigre while they are Ethiopian Semitic speakers are also descended predominantly like other Ḥabeshas (though some would argue they do not culturally fit within the "Ḥabesha" designation) would from originally Cushitic-Agaw speakers before their ancient ancestors made a shift to Semitic likely around ~2800-3000 yBP [9].

Many of these groups are also likely closely related as it has been found that all of the Cushitic & Ethiopian Semitic inhabitants of the Horn tested so far for their autosomal DNA are very closely related groups albeit there are distinctions between them to be made. 

 Sadly Sahos, Afars (true Afars) and Bejas have not had their autosomal DNA results published in any paper/ study however we have had show of their uniparentals (Y-DNA & mtDNA) which show a clear relation with all of the populations already tested for their autosomal DNA data: [-] , [-].

 It has personally always amazed me how similar these groups were in culture all the way down to their attire, until even the early modern period of recorded history where one could observe things such as their armaments or images of them going along with their day to day lives, almost feeling as though they were observing the same ethnic group spread out across Northeast Africa. 



Early Modern Period


The moniker's usage (or variants of it) didn't cease for Somalis after the Middle Ages began however... In fact the the Islamic-Arab world much like it would have known the Levant as "Bilad-Al-Shaam" (Country of Shaam) knew everything from Zeila down to Mogadishu during the Middle Ages as "Bilad Al-Barbar" (Country of the Berbers) or "Barbara" [5, page 130], a region with many demographics alongside Somalis from Afars, Oromos, Arabians & Persians but largely dominated in most places by the pastoral-nomadic & tradesman Somali whom the Barbara term was mostly used on.

The Islamic-Arab world having inherited many documents from the classical & late antiquity based Greco-Roman world was likely carrying on the old designations left behind to a certain extent.


Early Modern Beja


At this point & even when Duan Chengshi visited; Islam had long since, seemingly through trade, wrapped its clutches around the region. One of the first Mosques built outside of the Arabian Peninsula was in fact the Masjid Al-Qiblatayn. During this period (~600-1100 CE) the Somali had begun adopting claimed Arabian origins likely as I.M Lewis muses [10, pages 128-129] below- :


"The traditions of descent from noble Arab families related to the Prophet are most probably expressions of the importance of Islam in Somali society."


-to strengthen Somali society's ties to Islam. Somalis & other Horn Africans clearly have some high West Asian-related input (~35-50%) however this is certainly not admixture of a recent nature owed to modern Arabians. Nevertheless, even my own clan origins (I am an ethnic Somali) would claim I am essentially a Hashemite, descended from Aqeel Ibn Abi Talib (an uncle of the Prophet Muhammad) through his supposed descendant Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti


Early Modern Saho

 Frankly, it's unlikely these venerated Somali Saints were ever actually Arab migrants (if they were-> they most likely weren't actual clan founders but simply adopted as such) who took "native" wives & converted the locals to Islam as some sources will posit, acting as though the region was colonized by Somalis & Arabs during the early middle ages and frankly; the genetic evidence that we don't descend from a recent mixture between un-admixed African populations and modern Arabians is ample.

Needless to say, the medieval Somali founded several polities such as the Ajuran Sultanate,  the Warsangali Sultanate , possibly the Ifat Sultanate (Wilinwili/ Walashma dynasty) whom they seemingly mostly soldiered, and had some joint Somali-Arab polities such as the ruling class of the Sultanate of Mogadishu



Early Modern Afar Nomad


Somali control over the south from what can be surmised was mostly a medieval phenomenon, if you refer back to the Periplus map or the Periplus itself, the south of Somalia was during antiquity (1st Century CE) for example; ruled over by the Himyarite Kingdom of old pre-Islamic Yemen. Cities such as Mogadishu with a name that literally means "Seat of the Shah" (Maq'ad-i-Shah, مقعد شاه) also had an early Persian & generally foreign influence about them.


It was only in the North of Somalia where since antiquity the Barbaroi peoples of the Horn were mentioned to be dominant and outside rule beyond a bit of an Aksumite influence was unheard of [1, page 27, paragraph 14], Greek, Chinese & Islamic world authors all mentioning the independence streak in the North until the Ottomans final seized large portions of the Northern coast.



Traditional Beja weaponry


However authors such as Yaqut Al-Hammawi by the 12-13th Century CE described Mogadishu for example as being inhabited by what can be translated into "dark skinned Berbers" (medieval Somalis) [14, page 36]. By the time of Ibn Battuta (14th Century CE), the medieval equivalent of  the "Berber Country" of the 1st Century CE stretching across Northern Somalia had found its way down to Southern Somalia. 

When Ibn Battuta visited the Somali Peninsula during the Middle Ages he described the inhabitants of Zeila with the following [11]:


"He described the inhabitants as "Barbara," Muslim blacks who were followers of the Imam al- Shafi'i, although Battuta notes that the majority were "rejectors," i.e. (Shi'ite) people who rejected the first three caliphs. They herded camels and sheep"



He finally also described the Sultan of Mogadishu at the time to have been a "Barbara" and to have spoken Arabic & a language that was neither Arabic, Persian or Swahili he dubbed Mogadishan (or Maqdishi or some such variant) with equal fluency (assumed to be the Benadiri variant of Somali). [15] [16] He humorously did not stay long in Zeila where he found its stench unbearable due to how the local Barbara slaughtered their camels in its alleyways. He noted that it was a large city with a sizable bazaar nonetheless.

Honestly, there's a long history for all of these medieval polities from the Ajuran & their conflicts with the expanding Oromo tribes as well as the Portuguese, the Adal & their bloody war with the Abyssinian Empire under Ahmed Ibn Ibrahim and the Warsangali among other groups' movements all the way until the arrival of the Early Modern Period. But I'll leave it mostly at that with the history of the Barbaroi-Barbara term in Somalia.



Traditional Somali shield, more normally beige like the very similar Beja shield.


The other Cushitic speaking groups to have historically been touched by this title of Barbaroi and various variants of it also founded historical sultanates/kingdoms (all also becoming Islamized at one point or the other) such as for example the Aussa Sultanate of the Afar venerated as a part of general Ethiopian history & also as the following text from Stuart Munro-Hay's extensive book on the Aksumite civilization notes; the Beja started gaining strong political weight across areas of what is now Eritrea  during the medieval period:


"At just this time, in northern Abyssinia, the Beja tribes were growing stronger, and in 831 a treaty between the caliph al-Mu`tasim and Kannun ibn Abd al-Aziz, `king' of the Beja (Hasan 1973: 49-51), seems to recognise his power even as far south as Dahlak. This may well indicate that there had been disputes between the Beja and the Ethiopians, with the Ethiopians, at least temporarily, coming off rather the worse in the conflict." [2, page 93]


One Islamic world source of the middle ages went so far as to mention about five Beja kingdoms [2, page 89].

Ultimately it's quite intriguing how all of these coastal Cushites & Ethio-Semites (the Tigre) have long since had similar customs, diets (unsurprising in some respects given their shared pastoralism), modes of dress and even shared historical terms, although the term Barbaroi while it morphed off into its own thing for Somalis in the Middle Ages is honestly a generic term for Greeks, it would also be used to describe certain peoples unfamiliar with Greek in Europe itself. 

Anyway, future archaeological, linguistic and genetic study (gathering samples from more ethnic groups... Sequencing ancient genomes?) on the region when the time comes will no doubt make all of this even more interesting.


Reference List:















Notes:

1. As just some interesting trivia: both modern Northern Somalia & Northern Sudan are home to towns/ cities carrying the old Barbaroi-Berber epithet in their name. Berbera in Northern Somalia which is actually thought to correspond with one of the towns in the Periplus & Berber in North Sudan.

2. You're welcome to read all about the rest of the Barbaroi ports & towns in Northern Somalia in the Periplus I've shared. It's interesting that one of their main commodities was Frankincense (something the Silk-Road trading world of the time came to know the region for) given that Somalia is one of the world's premiere suppliers of Frankincense to this day. And Somali even supposedly its word for "Frankincense" to Old-South-Arabian.

3. You're welcome to read up more on Beja history in Egypt & North Sudan, they're written about by the following Greco-Roman writers: Herodotus , Strabo , Diodorus Siculus, Agatharchides, Pliny, Tacitus, Josephus.

4. The modern translation of "Barbaroi" or "Berber" as Barbarian is not always entirely correct, to my understanding the Greeks didn't necessarily always use it to connote that a group or groups were entirely "Barbaric" but this was often a meaning of the term indeed and the word is the root of the word "Barbarian".

It was also, in part, that they did not speak Greek (the Aksumites' rulers such as King Zoskales mentioned in the Periplus were familiar with Greek and even left behind inscriptions in Greek) & that their culture seemed foreign, this could often mean the Greeks looked down on said group as the Greco-Romans often viewed their culture as superior to others.

5. The Maasai who are as per Tishkoff et al. 2009 about ~50% Cushitic and known to have pre-historic West Asian ancestry as per Pickrell et al. 2013 spread by South-Cushitic pastoralists also interestingly have this practice of drinking cattle blood with milk, they seem to practice it to this day.

Updates:

1. Although I would note that if pastoral nomadic lowland residing Ethio-Semites did exist before the Middle Ages and if they were ancestral to Tigres; one might want to doubt that they would have been seen as distinct from Ge'ez speaking Aksumites beyond mere life style, as one friend would put it: "Tigre is closely related to Tigrinya and Ge'ez, and in ancient times they would (most likely) have been the same language, or shared a high degree of mutual intelligibility." This is indeed true as anyone familiar with Ethio-Semitic linguistics would tell you...

Saturday, February 21, 2015

The East African Cluster

The East African cluster/component (which I used to dub AEA/ Ancestral East African) is an ancestral component that peaks mostly, for the time being, in populations such as the Dinka, Anuak, Gumuz & generally South Sudanese populations, most of whom are speakers of Nilo-Saharan languages (a family which Old Nubian whom some of you maybe familiar with is a member of) and it is often dubbed "The Nilo-Saharan" component as a result.






The ADMIXTURE run from Hodgson et al. 2014 does, as many studies do, notices the existence of this cluster, it's the light blue one that is duly named Nilo-Saharan by them. 





At the lower Ks of this run and in many other runs, both those arranged by more layman sources as well as peer-reviewed studies; this component makes up a great degree of the ancestry in Horn Africans as well who are sort of the next peak of it in East Africa although we lack North Sudanese samples (Nubians, Sudanese Arabs, Beja etc.) for the time being.

This component tends to make up ~60% of the ancestry in Somalis & for example ~50% of the ancestry in Ḥabeshas such as Tigray-Tigrinyas. It also has a certain spread in West Asia & North Africa, most North Africans (Egyptians, Berbers) often prove to be almost ~20% East African [3], the rest of their African admixture being "Niger-Congo", a component of West-Central African origins that can be found all over Africa except, mostly, the Horn of Africa in varying degrees while peaking in Niger-Congo speakers.

The East African cluster exists in Levantines right down to Ashkenazi Jews & Negev Bedouin at a rate of about ~1-15% and in Arabians themselves as you can observe in Hodgson et al. itself at a rate of ~5-15% [4] [1]. Much of its presence in these populations given its spread seems quite extensively ancient (its ancient nature is likely even greater in North Africans) and this component's spread is not to be conflated with the Arab Slave Trade though some of its spread might be owed to this.






Mainland East Africa



Yemenite Jews for one are likely similar to some of the Christian populations of the rest of West Asia & Egypt; in that they are a perhaps decent representation of  the pre-Islamic inhabitants of their respective homeland (in this case; Yemen), seemingly avoiding a good degree of the admixture incurred by their Muslim counterparts [8], it says a lot that they too have this component at a rate of ~5-15%. It's also quite prevalent in Southeast Africa, making up a non-negligible segment of the ancestry in various Southeast African Bantu speaking peoples as well as the Hadza, and so on.

What makes this component intriguing however is not its spread, though its main geographic concentration (East Africa) is key. It's that this component and its carriers tend to show a greater affinity for Eurasians or rather; Out of Africa Populations than other African populations do.







Above is a PCA plot (Principal Component Analysis) from Pagani et al. , a study focused on the Horn of Africa populations. In this PCA/ cluster you can see that Anuaks & the South Sudanese samples have a greater pull towards West Asians & North Africans as well as Europeans (CEU) than Yorubans who are a Niger-Congo speaking West African ethnic group do (though the pull is small) despite the fact that Anuaks and such have anything between ~10-30% Niger-Congo input (makes up almost the entirety of the Yoruba).


As many of you might know by now if you've been keeping up with this blog, Out of Africa populations in general are thought to have expanded out of East Africa or at least share more of a lineage with East Africans over other Africans, this is noticeable in that every single mtDNA Haplogroup outside of Africa traces back to mtDNA L3 which is an East African marker.





A theoretical spread of how L3 spread


The Y-Chromosome Haplogroups of all Out of Africa populations also trace back to CT which is for now thought to be East African although its ancestors BT & Haplogroup A (Anuaks, Dinkas etc. are rich in Haplogroup A and rich in L3 markers) are clearly African.

It seems to be this general East African (their ancestors honestly could have been anywhere in Africa, it's just that their lineage is mainly pulling toward East Africans as we know them today) origin postulated for Out of Africa Populations that seems to give modern East Africans a certain affinity for them that other Africans lack or have less of.

However the East African cluster is most likely not a pure representation of the cluster, for example, the Proto-Eurasians (the first and ancestral OoA population) descend from. Carriers of this component including those whose ancestry it covers at a rate of ~70-80% (Anuaks etc. have a certain degree of Niger-Congo admixture) show markers such as L2 and so on that are signals perhaps for more divergent African ancestry in them and likely in their component.

The component also at the lower Ks even shows a meager "Khoisan"-like influence that you can see for yourself in Hodgson's own plot by observing the populations it peaks in at K=3 (numbers on the side) to K=5.






It even has a very small Eurasian/Out of Africa element that tends to show in these populations at the very lowest Ks (K=2 etc.).

It can only be assumed that if these more divergent influences (excluding the small Eurasian element) were not likely present in it (we'll need ancient genomes from East Africa to truly understand the component); the component's affinity for Eurasians would become even more potent. It could perhaps even seem Eurasian itself as a result... It could possibly be assumed that there is a very ancient East African cluster within it, noted by lineages such as L3 while the rest is more divergent African input marked by other markers such as L0 & L2.

Nevertheless, its current affinity for Eurasians brought about by the richness for example of lineages such as L3 in its carriers is quite evident. It shows in terms of whole-genome-wide variance as well as Fst distances.



The Ethiopic (Omotic) component is a mixed cluster made up of this East African component or predominantly, then pretty much something related to the Arabian & Khoisan clusters in that Fst distance table above so its greater closeness to Eurasia is explained mostly by direct and non-negligible West Asian input (~15%) but notice how Nilo-Saharan (East African component we're discussing here) is closer to all of the Eurasian clusters than Niger-Congo, Pygmy & Khoisan are.

Now, Fst distance can be influenced by a variety of factors, i.e. populations with small sizes can enjoy a higher incidence of genetic drift which will raise their Fst distance from other populations (it's ultimately not a 100% reliable way to gauge "distance") but then the thing is; even the Niger-Congo component likely shares in very ancient East African input.

Niger-Congo carriers such as Yorubans will often show L3 and as you can see their component has a certain affinity for Nilo-Saharan that "Pygmy" & "Khoisan" lack and they too prove closer to Eurasians than lets say the Khoisan do even when we utilize whole genome data to look at the estimated divergence dates between these populations:








The Yoruba are much less divergent in this respect from the French & the Han than San/Khoisan are. This is perhaps due to their ancient East African input which is shared to some extent between their Niger-Congo component and lets say your average Anuak's Nilo-Saharan component. David Reich himself once suggested that Niger-Congo Africans could be made up of divergent African lineages.

It's quite likely to me that components such as East African/ Nilo-Saharan & Niger-Congo will crumble into other components once we have ancient genomes from all over Africa to work with, much like what happened with Europe and our current knowledge of the three-way mixture nature of Europeans [7]. One of the components it will be made up of will likely be a specifically East African cluster with what might be a very strong affinity for Eurasians (Out of Africa Populations) given the origins of Eurasians as a whole. For now, only time & waiting will tell.

For the time being we just know that this cluster has what can be assumed to be a somewhat greater affinity for Eurasians than other African clusters as displayed above.



Reference List:







6. The expansion of mtDNA haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa, Soares et al.

7. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans, Lazaridis et al.




Notes:

1. Rummage through the Ethio-Helix blog's pages (the links I shared) on Haplogroups in East Africa, the author sets things up quite well in terms of interactivity and shares links to each of the studies he got the marker percentages from so everything he's sharing is entirely reliable, no worries. It's a good blog in mostly all other respects too so I recommend it.

Basal Eurasian in Kostenki14

This one's a strange find from last year that was recently followed up on by Haak et al. 2015, it's the idea that Kostenki14, an ancient (~36,000-38,000 BP) West Eurasian (Russia) Upper Paleolithic individual actually shows the Qausi-African Basal Eurasian component





This is quite strange in that for now this has only been found in Early European Farmers who were more or less Neolithic West Asians with a certain degree of Western European Hunter-Gatherer (native European component) ancestry (~30% or less).


When the findings in Seguin-Orlando et al. 2014 to which we owe that diagram above first came out, David Reich who had a key part in Lazaridis et al. as well as Haak et al. went so far as to suggest that Kostenki14's sample was contaminated & that these results perhaps couldn't be relied upon (last paragraph). 


Haak et al. which he had an important role in finally decided to incorporate Kostenki14 and the subject of his Basal Eurasian admixture into their study and for example share the following points:



"The hypothesis of Basal Eurasian ancestry in Kostenki14 needs to be further tested, as the negative D(Mbuti, Han; Loschbour, Kostenki14) statistic could also reflect gene flow between Han<->Loschbour a priori plausible, as these populations are much younger than Kostenki14 and may share intra-Eurasian genetic drift that Kostenki14 lacks because of its age. The possibility of later gene flow between Europeans and eastern non-Africans must be further tested with additional ancient samples from Upper Paleolithic Europe and Asia."


Frankly they're skeptical and even went so far as to suggest that this isn't the same affinity we find in Early European Farmers with ancestors from the Near East; claiming that this in some models even looks like a lineage that split before the split of the Basal Eurasian in West Asians & Early European Farmers from West Asia:




Other models include Kostenki14 sharing in the Basal Eurasian that was in the Early Farmers & many European & West Asian populations today which I frankly find unlikely however they note that no model making Kostenki14 out to be a single branch off fits; as in Kostenk14 can't fit as a simple break off from "West Eurasian Upper Paleolithic" or anything of the sort, instead a 2-way branch for the time being (like Basal Eurasian + WEUP) makes more sense.

Ultimately the study leaves you with honestly not many answers at the very end, we need more data, ancient genomes from East Eurasians might be able to explain this, this could be Kostenki14 being the extremely old individual he is showing affinities for populations whose divergence he long precedes etc etc. And frankly we may need more ancient samples from his timeline and area to make more sense of this find.

I personally find it implausible that this is the same affinity found in Early European Farmers given that Haak et al. itself did a study on the Steppe, relatively not too far off from Kostenki14's location and none of the Eastern European Hunter-Gatherers in the area prior to the arrival of Armenian-like West Asian ancestry in the area showed signs of Basal Eurasian admixture, Western European Hunter-Gatherers across the rest of Europe west of the Pontic-Caspian Steppe also show no signs of such admixture until mixture with the Early European Farmers whose genome is predominantly West Asian ensued.

Anyway, all that can be said at this point is that further study is required & I suppose this is intriguing to say the least.

Reference List:



2. Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years, Seguin-Orlando et al. 2014

Notes:

1. You're welcome to see the author of Eurogenes' take on all this from months ago...